Editorial Reviews. Review. Engineering Management Society Holds several important lessons Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition 5th Edition, Kindle Edition. Diffusion of innovations. [Everett M Rogers] -- This references concerns the history of the spread of new ideas. It explains how inventions are almost always. Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition by Everett M. Rogers - Now in its fifth edition, Diffusion of Innovations is a classic work on the spread of new sieflowiqroweb.tk
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Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition (5th ed.) by Everett M. Rogers. Read online, or download in secure EPUB format. Now in its fifth edition, Diffusion of Innovations is a classic work on the spread of new sieflowiqroweb.tk this renowned book, Everett M. Rogers, professor and chair of the. Read "Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition" by Everett M. Rogers available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. Now in its fifth.
Once an individual becomes ill, it is unthinkable to eat pork very cold or drink brandy very hot. Extremes of hot and cold must be avoided by the sick; therefore, raw water, which is perceived to be very cold, must be boiled to make it appropriate to consume. Villagers learn from early childhood to dislike boiled water. Most can tolerate cooked water only if a flavoring, such as sugar, cinnamon, lemon, or herbs, is added. A likes a dash of cinnamon in her drinking water. The village belief system involves no notion of bacteriorological contamination of water.
By tradition, boiling is aimed at eliminating the "cold" quality of unboiled water, not the harmful bacteria. A drinks boiled water in obedience to local norms, because she perceives herself as ill. B: Persuaded Adopter. The B family came to Los Molinas a generation ago, but they are still strongly oriented toward their birthplace in the Andes Mountains. B worries about lowland diseases that she feels infest the village. It is partly because of this anxiety that the change agent, Nelida, was able to convince Mrs.
B to boil water. Nelida is a friendly authority to Mrs. B rather than a "dirt inspector" as she is seen by other housewives , who imparts useful knowledge and brings protection.
B not only boils water but also has installed a latrine and has sent her youngest child to the health center for a checkup.
B is marked as an outsider in the community of Los Molinas by her highland hairdo and stumbling Spanish. She will never achieve more than marginal social acceptance in the village.
Because the community is not an important reference group to her, Mrs. B deviates from village norms on health innovations.
With nothing to lose socially, Mrs. B gains in personal security by heeding Nelida's advice. B's practice of boiling water has no effect on her marginal status.
She is grateful to Nelida for teaching her how to neutralize the danger of contaminated water, which she perceives as a lowland peril. C: Rejector. This housewife represents the majority of Los Molinas families who were not persuaded by the efforts of the change agents during their two-year water-boiling campaign.
In spite of Nelida's repeated explanations, Mrs. C does not understand germ theory. How, she argues, can microbes survive in water that would drown people? Are they fish? If germs are so small that they cannot be seen or felt, how can they hurt a grown person? There are enough real threats in the world to worry about -- poverty and hunger -- without bothering about tiny animals one cannot see, hear, touch, or smell.
C's allegiance to traditional village norms is at odds with the boiling of water. A firm believer in the hot-cold superstition, she feels that only the sick must drink boiled water. This intensive two-year campaign by a public health worker in a Peruvian village of families, aimed at persuading housewives to boil drinking water, was largely unsuccessful.
Nelida was able to encourage only about 5 percent of the population, eleven families, to adopt the innovation. The diffusion campaign in Los Molinas failed because of the cultural beliefs of the villagers.
Local tradition links hot foods with illness. Boiling water makes water less "cold" and hence, appropriate only for the sick. But if a person is not ill, the individual is prohibited by village norms from drinking boiled water.
Only individuals who are unintegrated into local networks risk defying community norms on water boiling. An important factor regarding the adoption rate of an innovation is its compatibility with the values, beliefs, and past experiences of individuals in the social system.
Nelida and her superiors in the public health agency should have understood the hot-cold belief system, as it is found throughout Peru and in most nations of Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
Here is an example of an indigenous knowledge system that caused the failure of a development program. Nelida's failure demonstrates the importance of interpersonal networks in the adoption and rejection of an innovation. Socially an outsider, Mrs. B was marginal to the Los Molinas community, although she had lived there for several years.
Nelida was a more important referent for Mrs. B than were her neighbors, who shunned her. Anxious to secure social prestige from the higher-status Nelida, Mrs. B adopted water boiling, not because she understood the correct health reasons, but because she wanted to obtain Nelida's approval. Thus we see that the diffusion of innovations is a social process, as well as a technical matter. Nelida worked with the wrong housewives if she wanted to launch a selfgenerating diffusion process in Los Molinas.
She concentrated her efforts on village women like Mrs. A and Mrs. Unfortunately, they were perceived as a sickly one and a social outsider, and were not respected as social models of appropriate water-boiling behavior by the other women.
The village opinion leaders, who could have activated local networks to spread the innovation, were ignored by Nelida. How potential adopters view the change agent affects their willingness to adopt new ideas. In Los Molinas, Nelida was perceived differently by lowerand middle-status housewives. Most poor families saw the health worker as a "snooper" sent to Los Molinas to pry for dirt and to press already harassed housewives into keeping cleaner homes.
Because the lower-status housewives had less free time, they were unlikely to talk with Nelida about water boiling. Their contacts outside the community were limited, and as a result, they saw the technically proficient Nelida with eyes bound by the social horizons and traditional beliefs of Los Molinas.
They distrusted this outsider, whom they perceived as a social stranger. Nelida, who was middle class by Los Molinas standards, was able to secure more positive results from housewives whose socioeconomic level and cultural background were more similar to hers. This tendency for more effective communication to occur with those who are more similar to a change agent occurs in most diffusion campaigns.
Nelida was too "innovation-oriented" and not "client-oriented" enough. Unable to put herself in the role of the village housewives, her attempts at persuasion failed to reach her clients because the message was not suited to their needs. Nelida did not begin where the villagers were; instead she talked to them about germ theory, which they could not and probably did not need to understand. These are only some of the factors that produced the diffusion failure in Los Molinas.
Once the remainder of the book has been read, it will be easier to understand the water-boiling case. This ease illustration is based on Wellin What Is Diffusion? Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. It is a special type of communication, in that the messages are concerned with new ideas.
Communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding. This definition implies that communication is a process of convergence or divergence as two or more individuals exchange information in order to move toward each other or apart in the meanings that they give to certain events. We think of communication as a two-way process of convergence, rather than as a one-way, linear act in which one individual seeks to transfer a message to another in order to achieve certain effects Rogers and Kincaid, A linear conception of human communication may accurately describe certain communication acts or events involved in diffusion, such as when a change agent seeks to persuade a client to adopt an innovation.
But when we look at what came before such an event, and at what follows, we often realize that the event is only one part of a total process in which information is exchanged between the two individuals.
For example, the client may come to the change agent with a problem, and the innovation is recommended as a possible solution to this need. The change agent-client interaction may continue through several cycles, as a process of information exchange. So diffusion is a special type of communication, in which the messages are about a new idea. This newness of the idea in the message content gives diffusion its special character.
The newness means that some degree of uncertainty is involved in diffusion. Uncertainty is the degree to which a number of alternatives are perceived with respect to the occurrence of an event and the relative probability of these alternatives.
Uncertainty implies a lack of predictability, of structure, of information.
In fact, information is a means of reducing uncertainty. Information is a difference in matter-energy that affects uncertainty in a situation where a choice exists among a set of alternatives Rogers and Kincaid, , p. By differences in matter-energy we mean inked letters on paper, sound waves traveling through the air, or an electrical current in a copper wire.
Information can thus take many forms, as matter or energy. A technological innovation embodies information and thus reduces uncertainty about cause-effect relationships in problem-solving. For instance, adoption of residential solar panels for water heating reduces uncertainty about future increases in the cost of fuel. Diffusion is a kind of social change, defined as the process by which alteration occurs in the structure and function of a social system.
When new ideas are invented, diffused, and are adopted or rejected, leading to certain consequences, social change occurs. Of course, such change can happen in other ways, too, for example, through a political revolution, through a natural event like a drought or an earthquake, or by means of a government regulation.
Some authors restrict the term "diffusion" to the spontaneous, unplanned spread of new ideas, and use the concept of "dissemination" for diffusion that is directed and managed. In this book we use the word "diffusion" to include both the planned and the spontaneous spread of new ideas. Controlling Scurvy in the British Navy: Innovations Do Not Sell Themselves Many technologists believe that advantageous innovations will sell themselves, that the obvious benefits of a new idea will be widely realized by potential adopters, and that the innovation will therefore diffuse rapidly.
Seldom is this the case. Most innovations, in fact, diffuse at a disappointingly slow rate.
Scurvy control illustrates how slowly an obviously beneficial innovation spreads Mosteller, In the early days of long sea voyages, scurvy was a worse killer of sailors than warfare, accidents, and all other causes of death.
For instance, of Vasco de Gama's crew of men who sailed with him around the Cape of Good Hope in , died of scurvy. In , an English sea captain, James Lancaster, conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of lemon juice in preventing scurvy.
Captain Lancaster commanded four ships that sailed from England on a voyage to India; he served three teaspoonfuls of lemon juice every day to the sailors in one of his four ships. Most of these men stayed healthy. But on the other three ships, by the halfway point in the journey, out of sailors had died from scurvy.
The three ships constituted Lancaster's "control group"; they were not given any lemon juice. So many of these sailors became sick that Lancaster had to transfer men from his "treatment" ship in order to staff the three other ships. The results were so clear that one would expect the British Navy to adopt citrus juice for scurvy prevention on all its ships.
But it was not until , about years later, that James Lind, a British Navy physician who knew of Lancaster's results, carried out another experiment on the HMS Salisbury. To each scurvy patient on this ship, Lind prescribed either two oranges and one lemon, or one of five other diets: A half-pint of sea water, six spoonfuls of vinegar, a quart of cider, nutmeg, or seventy-five drops of vitriol elixir. The scurvy patients who got the citrus fruits were cured in a few days, and were able to help Dr.
Lind care for the other patients. Unfortunately, the supply of oranges and lemons was exhausted in six days. Certainly, with this further solid evidence of the ability of citrus fruits to combat scurvy, one would expect the British Navy to adopt this technological innovation for all ship's crews on long sea voyages, and in fact, it did so.
But not until , forty-eight years later. Scurvy was immediately wiped out. And after only seventy more years, in , the British Board of Trade adopted a similar policy, and eradicated scurvy in the merchant marine. Why were the authorities so slow to adopt the idea of citrus for scurvy prevention? A clear explanation is not available, but other, competing remedies for scurvy were also being proposed, and each such cure had its champions.
For example, Captain Cook's reports from his voyages in the Pacific did not provide support for curing scurvy with citrus fruits. Further, Dr. Lind was not a prominent figure in the field of naval medicine, and so his experimental findings did not get much attention in the British Navy. While scurvy prevention was generally resisted for years by the British Navy, other innovations like new ships and new guns were accepted readily.
So the Admiralty did not resist all innovations. This case illustration is based on Mosteller Obviously more than just a beneficial innovation is necessary for its diffusion and adoption to occur. The reader may think that such slow diffusion could happen only in the distant past, before a scientific and experimental approach to evaluating innovations. We answer by calling the reader's attention to the contemporary case of the nondiffusion of the Dvorak typewriter keyboard.
Nondiffusion of the Dvorak Keyboard Most of us who use a typewriter or who do word processing on a computer do not realize that our fingers tap out words on a keyboard that is called "QWERTY," named after the first six keys on the upper row of letters. This typewriter keyboard takes twice as long to learn as it should, and makes us work about twenty times harder than is necessary.
Why does it continue to be used, instead of much more efficient alternative keyboard designs? In that day, the type-bars on a typewriter hung down in a sort of basket, and pivoted up to strike the paper; then they fell back in place by gravity.
When two adjoining keys were struck rapidly in succession, they jammed. Sholes rearranged the keys on a typewriter keyboard to minimize such jamming; he "anti-engineered" the arrangement to make the most commonly used letter sequences awkward.
By thus making it difficult for a typist to operate the machine, and slowing down typing speed, Sholes' QWERTY keyboard allowed these early typewriters to operate satisfactorily. His design was used in the manufacture of all typewriters.
Prior to about , most typists used the two-finger, hunt-and-peek system. Typewriters became mechanically more efficient, and the QWERTY keyboard design was no longer necessary to prevent key jamming. The search for an improved design was led by Professor August Dvorak at the University of Washington, who in used time-and-motion studies to create a much more efficient keyboard arrangement.
Less frequently used letters were placed on the upper and lower rows of keys. Toggle navigation. New to eBooks. How many copies would you like to download? Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition 5th ed. Add to Cart Add to Cart. Add to Wishlist Add to Wishlist. This is a great and thorough overview. Many of the ideas in the field overlap with theories of social networks. Everett M.
Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition. Now in its fifth edition, Diffusion of Innovations is a classic work on the spread of new ideas. In this renowned book, Everett M. Such innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky. To overcome this uncertainty, most people seek out others like themselves who have already adopted the new idea.
Thus the diffusion process consists of a few individuals who first adopt an innovation, then spread the word among their circle of acquaintances—a process which typically takes months or years.