Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Othello by William Shakespeare. No cover available. Download; Bibrec. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Othello, the Moor of Venice by William Shakespeare. Book Cover. Download; Bibrec. Download. Othello, The Moor of Venice is a tragedy by William Shakespeare based on the short story "Moor of Venice" by Cinthio, believed to have been written.
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The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice is based on the Italian short story Un Capitano Moro ('A William Shakespeare. Format: Global Grey free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Pages (PDF): Publication Date: Download Links. Ebook `Othello`: ebooks list of William Shakespeare. Characters: Othello, Desdemona, Iago, Emilia, Duke of Venice, Brabantio, Gratiano, download EPUB. The Tragedie of. Othello, The Moore of Venice. William Shakespeare. This web edition published by [email protected] Last updated Wednesday, December.
Not only her appearance seems attractive taking into consideration her beauty, fineness, exquisiteness and delicacy , but her personality appears to exude honesty, chastity, fidelity, sweetness, fairness, wisdom, virtuousness and gentleness.
Moreover, Desdemona proves herself a committed and loyal friend.
Neely , that is, his degradation of them cf. Deats , not least of Emilia as well. On the other hand, when Desdemona hears about Cassio having lost his lieutenancy, she immediately offers him her help. Critics, however, argue that these two scenes make Desdemona appear in a rather bad light.
Here, Desdemona has been criticized for possibly repressing her subconscious guilt and her need to assure Iago as well as herself that she is not such a demeaned house wife cf. Therefore, Desdemona has been understood as striving for self-justification cf.
Rice, Desdemona rather than actually standing up for Emilia. As a result, Desdemona does prove herself loyal to herself and to her maid and friend — especially when taking into account that she does speak up for another friend, Cassio, as well. Other critics, myself included, argue that Desdemona is simply a good and loyal friend, not having a hidden agenda but instead just wishing to help out a dear friend cf.
Adams Although she belongs to the higher social rank of Venice with her father as a senator and her husband as a general , she treats all people quite equally — free of any high-handedness. Desdemona does not seem to pay attention to race, class, rank, or hierarchy in general cf. Therefore, Desdemona unquestionably represents not only a well-liked but also a fair and righteous character in the play.
Her apparent lack of interest in reputation and hierarchy is also, or rather, most notably, portrayed in her choice of her husband. Boyce , Orlin It soon becomes clear that Desdemona is a determined and independent character as well. No sooner were Othello and his lady landed in Cyprus, than news arrived, that a desperate tempest had dispersed the Turkish fleet, and thus the island was secure from any immediate apprehension of an attack.
But the war, which Othello was to suffer, was now beginning; and the enemies, which malice stirred up against his innocent lady, proved in their nature more deadly than strangers or infidels. Among all the general's friends no one possessed the confidence of Othello more entirely than Cassio.
Michael Cassio was a young soldier, a Florentine, gay, amorous, and of pleasing address, favourite qualities with women; he was handsome and eloquent, and exactly such a person as might alarm the jealousy of a man advanced in years as Othello in some measure was , who had married a young and beautiful wife; but Othello was as free from jealousy as he was noble, an as incapable of suspecting as of doing a base action.
He had employed this Cassio in his love affair with Desdemona, and Cassio had been a sort of go-between in his suit: for Othello, fearing that himself had not those soft parts of conversation which please ladies, and finding these qualities in his friend, would often depute Cassio to go as he phrased it a courting for him: such innocent simplicity being rather an honour than a blemish to the character of the valiant Moor.
So that no wonder, if next to Othello himself but at far distance, as beseems a virtuous wife the gentle Desdemona loved and trusted Cassio.
Nor had the marriage of this couple made any difference in their behaviour to Michael Cassio. He frequented their house, and his free and rattling talk was no unpleasing variety to Othello, who was himself of a more serious temper: for such tempers are observed often to delight in their contraries, as a relief from the oppressive excess of their own: and Desdemona and Cassio would talk and laugh together, as in the days when he went a courting for his friend.
Othello had lately promoted Cassio to be the lieutenant, a place of trust, and nearest to the general's person.
This promotion gave great offence to Iago, an older officer who thought he had a better claim than Cassio, and would often ridicule Cassio as a fellow fit only for the company of ladies, and one that knew no more of the art of war or how to set an army in array for battle, than a girl.
Iago hated Cassio, and he hated Othello, as well for favouring Cassio, as for an unjust suspicion, which he had lightly taken up against Othello, that the Moor was too fond of Iago's wife Emilia. From these imaginary provocations, the plotting mind of Iago conceived a horrid scheme of revenge, which should involve both Cassio, the Moor, and Desdemona, in one common ruin.
Iago was artful, and had studied human nature deeply, and he knew that of all the torments which afflict the mind of man and far beyond bodily torture , the pains of jealousy were the most intolerable, and had the sorest sting. If he could succeed in making Othello jealous of Cassio, he thought it would be an exquisite plot of revenge, and might end in the death of Cassio or Othello, or both; he cared not.
The arrival of the general and his lady, in Cyprus, meeting with the news of the dispersion of the enemy's fleet, made a sort of holiday in the island. Everybody gave themselves up to feasting and making merry. Wine flowed in abundance, and cups went round to the health of the black Othello, and his lady the fair Desdemona.
Cassio had the direction of the guard that night, with a charge from Othello to keep the soldiers from excess in drinking, that no brawl might arise, to fright the inhabitants, or disgust them with the new-landed forces. That night Iago began his deep-laid plans of mischief. Cassio for a time resisted, but he could not long hold out against the honest freedom which Iago knew how to put on, but kept swallowing glass after glass as Iago still plied him with drink and encouraging songs , and Cassio's tongue ran over in praise of the lady Desdemona, whom he again and again toasted, affirming that she was a most exquisite lady: until at last the enemy which he put into his mouth stole away his brains; and upon some provocation given him by a fellow whom Iago had set on, swords were drawn, and Montano, a worthy officer, who interfered to appease the dispute, was wounded in the scuffle.
The riot now began to be general, and Iago, who had set on foot the mischief, was foremost in spreading the alarm, causing the castle-bell to be rung as if some dangerous mutiny instead of a slight drunken quarrel had arisen : the alarm-bell ringing awakened Othello, who, dressing in a hurry, and coming to the scene of action, questioned Cassio of the cause.
Cassio was now come to himself, the effect of the wine having a little gone off, but was too much ashamed to reply; and lago, pretending a great reluctance to accuse Cassio, but, as it were, forced into it by Othello, who insisted to know the truth, gave an account of the whole matter leaving out his own share in it, which Cassio was too far gone to remember in such a manner, as while he seemed to make Cassio's offence less, did indeed make it appear greater than it was.
The result was, that Othello, who was a strict observer of discipline, was compelled to take away Cassio's place of lieutenant from him.
Thus did Iago's first artifice succeed completely; he had now undermined his hated rival, and thrust him out of his place: but a further use was hereafter to be made of the adventure of this disastrous night. Cassio, whom this misfortune had entirely sobered, now lamented to his seeming friend Iago that he should have been such a fool as to transform himself into a beast.
He was undone, for how could he ask the general for his place again?
He despised himself. Iago, affecting to make light of it, said, that he, or any man living, might be drunk upon occasion; it remained now to make the best of a bad bargain; the general's wife was now the general, and could do anything with Othello; that he were best to apply to the lady Desdemona to mediate for him with her lord; that she was of a frank, obliging disposition, and would readily undertake a good office of this sort, and set Cassio right again in the general's favour; and then this crack in their love would be made stronger than ever.
A good advice of Iago, if it had not been given for wicked purposes, which will after appear. Cassio did as Iago advised him, and made application to the lady Desdemona, who was easy to be won over in any honest suit; and she promised Cassio that she should be his solicitor with her lord, and rather die than give up his cause.
This she immediately set about in so earnest and pretty a manner, that Othello, who was mortally offended with Cassio, could not put her off. When he pleaded delay, and that it was too soon to pardon such an offender, she would not be beat back, but insisted that it should be the next night, or the morning after, or the next morning to that at farthest.
Then she showed how penitent and humbled poor Cassio was, and that his offence did not deserve so sharp a check. And when Othello still hung back: 'What! I count this but a little thing to ask of you.
When I mean to try your love indeed, I shall ask a weighty matter. It happened that Othello and Iago had entered into the room where Desdemona was, just as Cassio, who had been imploring her intercession, was departing at the opposite door: and Iago, who was full of art, said in a low voice, as if to himself-.
For when Desdemona was gone, Iago, as if for mere satisfaction of his thought, questioned Othello whether Michael Cassio, when Othello was courting his lady, knew of his love.
To this the general answering in the affirmative and adding, that he had gone between them very often during the courtship, Iago knitted his brow, as if he had got fresh light on some terrible matter, and cried: 'Indeed! I must have proof before I think her dishonest. Then he artfully insinuated that Desdemona deceived her father in marrying with Othello, and carried it so closely, that the poor old man thought that witchcraft had been used. Othello was much moved with this argument, which brought the matter home to him, for if she had deceived her father, why might she not deceive her husband?
Iago begged pardon for having moved him; but Othello, assuming an indifference, while he was really shaken with inward grief at Iago's words, begged him to go on, which Iago did with many apologies, as if unwilling to produce anything against Cassio, whom he called his friend: he then came strongly to the point, and reminded Othello how Desdemona had refused many suitable matches of her own clime and complexion, and had married him, a Moor, which showed unnatural in her, and proved her to have a headstrong will; and when her better judgement returned, how probable it was she should fall upon comparing Othello with the fine forms and clear white complexions of the young Italians her countrymen.
He concluded with advising Othello to put off his reconcilement with Cassio a little longer, and in the meanwhile to note with what earnestness Desdemona should intercede in his behalf; for that much would be seen in that. So mischievously did this artful villain lay his plots to turn the gentle qualities of this innocent lady into her destruction, and make a net for her out of her own goodness to entrap her: first setting Cassio on to entreat her mediation, and then out of that very mediation contriving stratagems for her ruin.
The conference ended with Iago's begging Othello to account his wife innocent, until he had more decisive proof; and Othello promised to be patient; but from that moment the deceived Othello never tasted content of mind.
Poppy, nor the juice of mandragora, nor all the sleeping potions in the world, could ever again restore to him that sweet rest, which he had enjoyed but yesterday. His occupation sickened upon him.