Calatoriile lui Gulliver. Home · Calatoriile lui Gulliver Author: Report copyright / DMCA form · DOWNLOAD EPUB Les Voyages De Gulliver. Read more. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Gulliver's Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Jonathan Swift. Go to the editions section to read or download ebooks. Cover of: Gulliver's .. Gulliver's travels =: Călătoriile lui Gulliver. in Romanian.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
Calatoriile Lui Gulliver (Romanian Edition) [Jonathan Swift] on sieflowiqroweb.tk * FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Dupa doua zile, imparatul avu cea mai. Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, . In perioada in care Jonatlian Swift (1G67—) scria Călătoriile lui Gulliver ( pub). ), iar contemporanul său iluminist Daniel Defoe (—).
Finally, we talk about Elasticsearch scaling and how to prepare it for high indexing and querying use cases. Just as with the first edition of the book, we decided to end the book with the development of Elasticsearch plugins, showing you how to set up the Apache Maven project and develop two types of pluginscustom REST action and custom analysis. If you think that you are interested in these topics after reading about them, we think this is a book for you and, hopefully, you will like the book after reading the last words of the summary in Chapter 9, Developing Elasticsearch Plugins.
What This Book Covers Chapter 1, Introduction to Elasticsearch, guides you through how Apache Lucene works and will reintroduce you to the world of Elasticsearch, describing the basic concepts and showing you how Elasticsearch works internally.
In addition to that, it explains the usage of filters and which query should be used in a particular use case. Chapter 3, Not Only Full Text Search, describes queries rescoring, multimatching control, and different types of aggregations that will help you with data analysis significant terms aggregation and top terms aggregation that allow us to group documents with a certain criteria.
In addition to that, it discusses relationship handling in Elasticsearch and extends your knowledge about scripting in Elasticsearch. Chapter 4, Improving the User Search Experience, covers user search experience improvements. It introduces you to the world of Suggesters, which allows you to correct user query spelling mistakes and build efficient autocomplete mechanisms. In addition to that, you'll see how to improve query relevance by using different queries and the Elasticsearch functionality with a real-life example.
Chapter 5, The Index Distribution Architecture, covers techniques for choosing the right amount of shards and replicas, how routing works, how shard allocation works, and how to alter its behavior.
In addition to that, we discuss what query execution preference is and how it allows us to choose where the queries are going to be executed. Chapter 6, Low-level Index Control, describes how to alter the Apache Lucene scoring and how to choose an alternative scoring algorithm.
It also covers NRT searching and indexing and transaction log usage, and allows you to understand segment merging and tune it for your use case. At the end of the chapter, you will also find information about Elasticsearch caching and request breakers aiming to prevent out-of- memory situations. Chapter 7, Elasticsearch Administration, describes what the discovery, gateway, and recovery modules are, how to configure them, and why you should bother. We also describe what the Cat API is, how to back up and restore your data to different cloud services such as Amazon AWS or Microsoft Azure , and how to use tribe nodes Elasticsearch federated search.
Chapter 8, Improving Performance, covers Elasticsearch performance-related topics ranging from using doc values to help with field data cache memory usage through the JVM garbage collector work, and queries benchmarking to scaling Elasticsearch and preparing it for high indexing and querying scenarios.
Chapter 9, Developing Elasticsearch Plugins, covers Elasticsearch plugins' development by showing and describing in depth how to write your own REST action and language analysis plugin. Before going further into the book, we would like to emphasize that we are treating this book as an extension to the Elasticsearch Server Second Edition book we've written, also published by Packt Publishing.
Of course, we start with a brief introduction to both Apache Lucene and Elasticsearch, but this book is not for a person who doesn't know Elasticsearch at all. Thus Swift approved of the Brobdingnagian education, which Gulliver criticized. The Gulliver of Brobdingnag is different from the earlier pragmatic Gulliver of Lilliput. He criticizes the giants for their lack of abstract and theoretical scholarship.
Gulliver begins to yearn for home When the King says that he hopes to find a female for Gulliver so that they might propagate, Gulliver hates the idea of his offspring being kept as pets in cages He spent two years in Brobdingnag The box is dropped into the ocean, and after several hours, he is lifted aboard an English ship.
Gulliver left on June 20, and returns on June 3, , being gone almost four years. Book 3 was the last of the four to be written. It shows the pride of human beings in scientific pursuits; Swift argues that science has no morality to it. The book satirizes the feverish hunt for novelty and the lack of realism and of common sense. We seem to hear Swift and not Gulliver talking. Also, Gulliver is not developed as a character. He becomes a mouthpiece for the opinions of Swift about science and technology.
Gulliver has no active role. He is entirely the outsider. He is entirely passive, merely the observer. The Laputan King, along with his mathematicians and astronomers, is an absurd, absent-minded individual, so given to abstract speculation that he cannot even carry on a conversation without being reminded by his servants that he must listen and speak.
Even their wives despise them and seek every opportunity to escape from their dreary existence. The Projectors of Lagado attempt to apply the abstract learning of the Laputan scientists to the practical affairs of life. They are madmen engaged in useless schemes which never work and bring ruin upon their land. Count Munodi, unlike the projectors, is a man of common sense who is glad to make use of the best ideas and methods inherited from the past.
He is, however, despised by the projectors who pressure him to use their methods. He is an alternative to the scientific approach to life. Tarvin 21 4. The Struldbruggs are doomed to eternal life. However, since they are not blessed with eternal youth, they are in a state of perpetual decay. They are meant as an object lesson in the foolishness of the human desire for immortality.
Gulliver comes to understand that death can be a blessing and that the problem for a human being is to live as well as he can in his allotted time span rather than to hanker after an immortality which would be just as much as curse as it is an impossibility.
Swift shows us that the Laputians, these supreme scientists, are entirely cut off from real life. They cannot converse with each other, so lost are they in thought; their wives despise them and seek only to escape them; and their knowledge of mathematics, astronomy, and music does not even guarantee that their clothes will fit them. The reason science could have no moral importance for a person was that science, it seemed to Swift, was an endeavor that depended entirely on the human intellect.
Thus, he shows us the projectors trying to apply scientific principles to the solution of human problems and failing miserably. In effect, the scientists and projectors are guilty of intellectual pride, of failing to understand the limitations of the unaided human mind. Swift was not opposed to science or the new, only to its misuse or to its insistence on discarding traditional wisdom.
Ever the faithful churchman, to Swift science and technology were two fields humans misused to elevate their own position at the expense of a religious approach.
The cruelty of the Dutch pirates seems to reinforce what the King of Brobdingnag had said about Europeans. This chapter uses our childhood myths of magic carpets and flying horses: Icarus and Leonardo da Vinci and Superman.
Tarvin 22 Chapter Two: 1. Swift is depicting the harmful effects of inward speculation or machination. This is a false use of our God-given reason. Laputa is a land where reason is incorrectly used. Laputans are cut off from real life. They are incapable of love and domestic happiness since they neglect their life on earth. They must use flappers servants with a blown bladder on the end of a short stick to draw them back to the real world. Gulliver gives a false etymology of the word Laputa , but as the footnote reveals, it comes from the Spanish la puta the prostitute.
Not surprisingly the clothes do not fit Gulliver. For the Laputans, everything revolves around mathematics and music, although they also have a fascination with politics Their scientific advances in mechanics and astronomy, in which the Laputans excelled Europeans have not brought them moral happiness.
Gulliver describes the magnet which allows the island to fly. The earth base of Laputa is Balnibarbi The island cannot move beyond the bounds of Balnibarbi and can ascend only four miles. The flying island allows the King to exercise an almost complete power over his subjects in Balnibarbi since by hovering over a rebellious part of the island, he could deprive it of sun and rain, or he could let the island drop directly upon the rebels.
Four paragraphs at the end of this chapter were omitted from the original version of the work since they dealt with the Irish boycott which Swift led against England.
These paragraphs are given on pp. Tarvin 23 7. The episode deals with an allegory where Lindalino becomes Ireland and its resistance, led by Swift in his role as Drapier, to the attempt by the English to force the country to take some specially minted copper coins in When the King of the Flying Island tried to break their rebellion, first by depriving them of sun and rain and then by dropping stones on the towns, the Lindalinians had set up strategies to thwart him Finally the King ordered that the flying island to be dropped on the town, but the magnets which the Lindalinians had put on the towers upset the magnet of the flying island and would have caused the island to crash Gulliver is soon bored living on Laputa and requests permission to be lowered onto Balnibarbi In criticizing the Laputan intellectuals and in praising the one who befriends him before Gulliver leaves the flying island, Gulliver contrasts the enlightened curiosity of a well educated man with the self-absorbed mania of the others.
Here Swift addresses the Ancients vs. On the other hand, the Academy of Projectors advances many new and revolutionary schemes; these are ingenious, but they typically fail. Consequently most of the people of Lagado live in poverty. Swift did not hold that because something was new it was necessarily bad, but conversely he felt that just because something is new did not make it good. Swift felt it was insane to discard the wisdom of the past. The Projectors are self-absorbed and full of pride.
They are committed to novelty merely for the sake of novelty. Chapter Five: Tarvin 24 1. In each case, the projectors are engaged in projects which are impractical or useless: extracting sunbeams from cucumbers , converting human excrement back into the food from which it came , converting ice into gunpowder, building houses from the top down, using pigs to plow fields , using a bellows inserted into the rectum to relieve intestinal gas , or breeding a herd of sheep without wool Swift uses much exaggeration here.
Gulliver is weakly portrayed as being too gullible since he often praises the projects or offers no criticism of them. Gulliver also visits the Projectors of Speculative Learning whose chief concern is to find new methods of education. Here there are word machines , attempts to eliminate useless parts of speech, using objects for communication instead of words , and learning mathematics by eating wafers on which mathematic propositions are written Swift is not attacking education, but a general attitude toward education which views learning as a mechanical process.
For instance, the projector who believes that geometry can be taught through ingesting wafers believes in rote learning, not learning as training the mind how to think. Some of the proposals of the political projectors are sensible, but Gulliver considers them outlandish.
However, since all through book 3 Swift depicted the Projectors as ridiculous, it is inconsistent with his satiric techniques suddenly to show the political projectors as sensible. The distortion of letters to make someone appear guilty of treason reminds one of the corrupt and secret plotting of the court of Lilliput. Since Gulliver was the victim of such plotting there, it is strange that here he would appear to advocate and even improve on such corruption. Each of these projectors has a gimmick to ensure good government.
Swift believed simply that good government as in Brobdingnag proceeded from good people and that as in Lilliput bad government proceeds from morally bad people. There are no mechanical solutions to moral problems.
Tarvin 25 6. The anagram on p. However, i was not distinguished from j until the 17th century, so there is no mistake in the anagram. Gulliver prepared to leave Lagado and return to Europe.
Gulliver is convinced to make a trip to Glubbdubdrib, an island close to Balnibarbi, but which is mislocated on the map for the third book. The governor of Glubbdubdrib has servants who are ghosts. The governor has the power to summon the dead if Gulliver wants to talk with anyone dead. Gulliver says that he had much conversation with Brutus, who mentions that in the next world he converses with the six wisest people.
Sir Thomas More is the only modern member of the great sextumvirate of philosophers. More is the only Christian in the group. This chapter is largely a praise of ancient Rome, a main idea of the 18th Chapter Eight: 1. The ghosts of Homer and Aristotle represent the Ancients while that of Descartes represents the Moderns.
Next Gulliver asks to see the ancestors of some of the great noble and royal families of Europe. He discovers that the lineage of many of these is full of servants and crooks.
Great people got their position by prostituting themselves, their wives, and their daughters or by betraying their country or by poisoning. In modern times, moral decay is accompanied by physical decay, largely due to syphilis. Tarvin 26 6.
Swift felt that modern aristocracy had been debased by money. Chapter Nine: 1. Gulliver finally arrives in Luggnagg, a large island close to Japan. He has to get permission from the King of Luggnagg to continue on to Japan, so Gulliver must journey to the capital of Luggnagg, Traldragdubh also pronounced Trildrogdrib. There, in approaching the King, Gulliver must lick the floor, reminiscent of the rope-dancing of Lilliput.
Gulliver stays four months in Luggnagg, a favorite of the King, but thoughts of his family in English causes him to want to leave. Chapter Ten: 1. The Luggnuggians ; notice that the a becomes a u in designating the people of Luggnagg are mainly sensible people. Some of them tell Gulliver about the Struldbrugs or Immortals; these are born with a circular red spot above their left eyebrow, which changes in color as they age. The most severe form of human vanity, Swift shows in the chapter on the Struldbrugs, is the desire to live forever and to escape death.
The desire for eternal life is another species of human pride, the essential sin of human beings. Happy People. Thus even before Gulliver is invited to lavish his eloquence on the theme of immortal life, we have already become suspicious.
Tarvin 27 7. They describe to Gulliver the eternal decay which face Struldbrugs and make them yearn for the release of death. Gulliver is convinced of the foolishness of his first response to being able to live forever.
He regrets that he cannot take some Struldbrugs back to England as an object lesson on the folly of the fear of death Chapter Eleven: 1. Gulliver gets to Japan and is warmly greeted by the Emperor because of his letter of recommendation from the King of Luggnagg.
Gulliver gets permission to take a Dutch ship heading toward Europe. Also he is not required to trample on the cross, something all foreigners are supposed to do.
The Dutch, the Emperor of Japan tells Gulliver, care more for money than their religion since they do not hesitate to trample on the cross. On April 10, , Gulliver arrives in England and is reunited with his family.
Since he had left on Aug. In this voyage Swift propounds his deepest analysis of humankind, but it is not misanthropy. The Houyhnhnms are not so much an ideal race as a means of criticizing humanity. It is here that Swift obtained the one great tragic vision of his age.
Human beings could be governed by reason and should be governed by reason, but the lower elements of the nature of human beings, the very foundations of their existence, have debased what is fine within them. Thus aware of our essential foulness, we may not entirely give in to it. The book is a moral, intellectual, and spiritual challenge to achieve genuine human dignity. The true pessimist gives up on humankind; but the true benefactor, like Swift, uncompromisingly forces humankind to face the truth and accept its challenge.
The Houyhnhnms are to be seen as only another object of satire, the rational man without emotions. Before the other three voyages, Gulliver was ready to set out on them. Here he is content to live with his family for five months. Only Capt. Pocock talks him into leaving.
Gulliver chooses reason, but is rejected by the rationalists. Gulliver rejects bestiality and yet is accepted by the beasts. To answer this question, he places Gulliver an ordinary mortal, basically kind, well-educated, resourceful, inquiring, but also, as his name suggests, a little gullible directly between the figures of impossible perfection, the Houyhnhnms, and the figures of impossible degradation, the Yahoos. Aesthetic: Yahoos are ugly, smelly, noisy, incontinent, and dirty. They excrete and copulate copiously.
The Houyhnhnms are handsome, graceful, clean smelling, quiet, and if they do copulate or excrete, they do it secretly. Moral: The Yahoos are covetous, angry, envious, proud, lazy, greedy, and lustful.
The Houyhnhnms have not one of these Seven Deadly Sins. Instead the Houyhnhnms have two principal virtues: Friendship and Benevolence. Intellectual: The Yahoos are totally irrational. The Houyhnhnms are entirely rational and intelligent. Physically, they resemble a human being, but their behavior suggests Tarvin 30 that of an animal.
They are odious, filthy, greedy, tormented brutes, seemingly possessing no reason. The Yahoos are all disorder and passion, competitive beasts vying for satisfaction and supremacy. Often they are associated with their excrement. The Yahoos are images of what humans would become were they totally devoid of reason and completely removed from civilization. Gulliver comes to the mistaken conclusion that the Yahoos represent humankind, the climax of the book coming when Gulliver has to admit with shame and horror that he is more like the Yahoos than the Houyhnhnms.
Physically, they resemble an animal, but their behavior suggests that of a rational being. Gulliver begins to love and admire the Houyhnhnms, but he makes the mistake of evaluating human conduct on the basis of Houyhnhnm standards.
Seen through Houyhnhnm eyes, humanity appears even worse than the Yahoos, for the Houyhnhnms argue that human beings have made use of their small amount of reason for bad purposes greed, war, etc. They know neither love nor grief nor lust nor ambition. With calm they face the major processes of life, marriage, childbirth, accident, and death. Tarvin 31 9. They eat, sleep, and exercise wisely. They believe in universal benevolence as an ideal, and accordingly have no personal ties or attachments.
The family is effectually abolished; marriage is arranged by friends; husband and wife like one another and their own children just as much and as little as they like everyone else. Sex is accepted as normal, but only for the purpose of procreation.
They have no intellectual curiosity; their language, their arts, and their sciences are purely functional and restricted to the bare necessities of harmonious social existence. From a human perspective, the Houyhnhnms can be seen as merely grotesque and at times ridiculous. Which is the correct view of human nature? The answer that Gulliver comes to—that human beings are Yahoos—is probably not the one Swift advocates.
The Yahoos are not humanity any more than are the Houyhnhnms. Deluded by his worship of pure reason, Gulliver commits the error of the Houyhnhnms in equating human beings with the Yahoos. Gulliver assumes that because human beings cannot be Houyhnhnms, they must be Yahoos.
It is Gulliver, not Swift, who is dazzled by the Houyhnhnms and who aspires to rise above the human condition and become all reason. He is surely right in recognizing and hating the Yahoo elements in human beings, but just as surely he is ridiculous in seeing only those elements and in admiring so unqualifiedly the rational horses.
Tarvin 32 7. Gulliver is committing the sin of pride because he overlooks the limits of human capability in judging human beings by standards inapplicable to humankind. In judging humanity by Houyhnhnm standards, Gulliver grows alienated from his race and finds it unbearable to return to live among human beings.
Don Pedro de Mendez, the Spanish captain who rescues Gulliver, is basically a kind and caring man, but Gulliver regards him with repulsion, repelled by his clothes, food, and odor. Gulliver does not see how greatly he differs from Yahoos in the clothes he wears, in his cleanliness vs. Rather, a human being is an imperfect creature who, nevertheless, has the power to live a decent life if only he or she will recognize how limited he or she is. He thus commits the sin of pride as he is in the very process of condemning humans for being proud.
Chapter 1: 1. In the first edition of GT, Gulliver leaves on August 2, , but this was corrected in the Faulkner edition to September 7, , since Gulliver had said he was at home for about five months: In the last paragraph of book 3, Gulliver said he arrived home on April 10, five months from then would be in September, not August. Since Gulliver returns from his fourth voyage on December 5, , he is gone for over five years.
Unlike the other voyages, Gulliver has to be coaxed into taking this one. Tarvin 33 4. Gulliver is the victim of a mutiny by his crew and is at last set ashore in a strange land.
In a field he notices several animals, the most repulsive he has ever beheld. Description of Yahoos: They are bearded like goats; their heads and breasts are covered with thick hair, and the rest of their bodies are bare and of a brown-buff color In this first encounter Gulliver perceives no resemblance between the Yahoos and himself.
Other of the beasts attack Gulliver, even dropping excrement on him. However, they are suddenly driven off by the appearance of a horse—a dapple-gray or spotted grey, which walks softly in the field, looking at Gulliver with amazement.
Soon another horse—a brown bay—joins the first, and Gulliver observes that they converse like human beings discussing matters of weight. Gulliver thinks that the horses are really human beings—magicians who have themselves into horses As foot note 5, p. He follows the horses where they lead him. In chapter 1, there are creatures whose behavior is bestial, but whose shape is human. Also there are characters whose shape is bestial that of a horse , but whose Tarvin 34 behavior is human rational.
Chapter 2: 1. Gulliver reaches a rambling dwelling , and after seeking a human form in vain, Gulliver realizes that the horse is his host. The graciousness of the horse is seen by his indicating for Gulliver to go in first Gulliver disdains first the food of the Yahoos and then the food of the Houyhnhnms He motions toward a passing cow, and the Houyhnhnms get him some milk An old steed, drawn in a vehicle by four Yahoos, comes to view the stranger along with many other horse-guests Chapter 3: 1.
Gulliver pleases the Master horse by his ability to pick up the Houyhnhnm language. The Master is surprised that Gulliver is teachable, clean, and civil. These are qualities opposed to those of the Yahoos. Also, Gulliver can speak, a sign that he possesses reason Tarvin 35 4.
In this chapter, Gulliver is being forced to see himself through Houyhnhnm eyes. They recognize him basically as a talented Yahoo. Gulliver says that the Houyhnhnms have no books or written literature Gulliver tells his horse Master of his own antecedents, but the horse does not believe him. Lying is altogether foreign to the culture of the Houyhnhnms, but the Master cannot conceive of a vessel that can sail the seas.
Gulliver tries to conceal one difference between himself and the Yahoos; he wears clothes. Upon seeing Gulliver disrobed, the Master horse is mystified at the invention of clothes.
Gulliver begs his Master not to call him a Yahoo , and he even persuades the Master not to tell other Houyhnhnms about his clothes. Gulliver announces that in his country the Yahoos are the masters and the Houyhnhnms the brutes. Chapter 4: 1. The Master is greatly disturbed. Here speech is for the purpose of being understood, and he cannot comprehend lying Gulliver is again afraid to tell the truth Tarvin 36 4. The Houyhnhnm Master is indignant on hearing of a Yahoo riding a Houyhnhnm The Master says that Yahoos are physically too incapable to rule Gulliver says that male horses in Europe are often castrated Gulliver praises the simplicity of Houyhnhnm language Gulliver is again being forced to see the Yahoo in himself, but he is not given time to contemplate that he is a human being, a different species from a Yahoo.
The Houyhnhnm Master says he is puzzled by human vices.
Gulliver has given examples of the worst of human beings the mutineers , but the horse has concluded falsely that these are the only types of people. Chapter 5: 1. This chapter deals with European wars and laws.
Gulliver discourses to his Master on the state of England He tells of great wars caused by the ambition of kings or by a mere difference in opinion Religious wars were particularly hateful to Swift Gulliver forgets that a religious abuse does not make all religion evil. Tarvin 37 7. His Master hears of this warfare among human beings with horror.
He notes that European people are worse than Yahoos since the latter in their fighting cannot bite each other very well and consequently cannot easily kill each other Gulliver describes the art of war in Europe, mentioning cannons, bullets, powder, and the large number who drown during sea battles He proudly paints the valor of his countrymen when they blew up a hundred of their enemies at once In this country the Yahoos are not blamed for their odious qualities, but when a reasonable creature descends to such enormities the Master wonders whether the corruption of reason is not more dreadful than brutality Gulliver goes on to describe English law; in his world a society of young men is encouraged to prove that black is white and white black, according to who pays them; these are the lawyers Judges are chosen from these men, who all their lives have been biased against truth and justice The Master is further grieved to hear these things Chapter 6: 1.
In Chapter 6, Gulliver expresses major ideas which Swift held: 1 The fear of a money-oriented society. Gulliver describes the use of money: The poor man furnishes by his labors the luxury of the rich England produces more food than it needs, but exports food needed at home by the poor in order to satisfy the follies and vices of the wealthy A long list of vices is Tarvin 38 given here.
When Gulliver tries to explain the medical profession, the Master cannot understand the meaning of sickness, since the Houyhnhnms suffer no diseases Gulliver enlarges on the bad eating habits of his countrymen. Doctors are more skilled in predicting death than they are able to aid a patient in his or her recovery He procures his position by knowing how to get rid of a wife, daughter, or sister—that is, he sells or prostitutes his family—or by betraying his predecessor Swift in his correspondence and Gulliver in his letter to Cousin Sympson call this an interpolation by the first publisher of GT.
Swift disavowed that he wrote such flattery. Again Swift and Gulliver are at one here in the following attacks on the ministerial government in England: 1 bribery, 2 greed, and 3 toadyism When the Master horse flatters Gulliver by saying that he must be of noble birth because of his cleanliness and color, Gulliver informs him that he is of humble origin.
Why does the Master compliment Gulliver? Because Gulliver is telling the Houyhnhnm what he wants to hear—a criticism of a place where human beings rule and horses are kept as slaves. Swift did not approve of the movement from one class, say, the lower class, to another, such as the middle or upper class.
If a person was born into a family which farms, that person should remain a farmer. Nobility, Gulliver says, breeds idleness and disease, dullness, ignorance, and sensuality , again a prejudiced exaggeration since history shows that many noblemen and noblewomen made significant contributions to society.